This document presents the connection between the performance of the normal immune system, autoimmune diseases and camel milk therapy.
The immunoglobulins (Igs) are large long and short-chained domains, having difficulties reaching and penetrating antigens. Camel immunoglobulins have no short chains and small so are active against antigens. The camel's immunoglobulins pass into the milk and so are available for combating autoimmune diseases.
The most pertinent factor is that conventional treatments of autoimmune diseases are based on immune-suppression, while camel milk Igs enhance the immune system, revitalizing immune integrity.
Camel milk was first mentioned in the Moslem Holy Scriptures as being a gift for hungry people and a remedy for sicknesses. This claim is still valid today and, therefore, can be considered an natural and historic treatment.
The Prophet Muhammed considered camels' milk medicinal (Bukhari 7:71 "Medicine" #589 and #590). Scientists theorize that it is due to the immune system..
Below are links to scientific papers that have been published in peer-reviewed publications.
The Folate Factor
Dan Rossignol, MD(1) and Richard Frye, MD, PhD(2)
(1)Rossignol Medical Centre, FL & (2)U of Texas, Houston
Biomedial Update p.42-46
[Unofficial Abstract] Autism research is a rapidly growing field. While many parents report great results with camel milk, recently new information has come to light about cerebral folate deficiency (CFD), a condition of below normal levels of folate in the central nervous system. Folate receptor protein alpha (FRA) transports folate in the central nervous system. Dr. Quadros who tested camel’s milk stated, “folate receptor alpha antigen is very similar to cow’s milk and the immunoreactivity with the folate receptor alpha is also similar.” In light of this new information, it appears for children who produce autoantibodies to the folate receptor alpha, camel milk would be contraindicated and should be avoided. Dr. Dan Rossignol has found these antibodies in 62% of children with ASD that he’s tested. Because it is so prevalent, Dr. Rossignol recommends all children with ASD be tested for FRA autoantibodies.
Potential Activity of Camel Milk-Amylase and Lactoferrin against Hepatitis C Virus Infectivity in HepG2 and Lymphocytes
El-Fakharany EM, Tabll A, Abd El-Wahab A, Haroun BM, Redwan EM
Antibody Laboratory, Protein Research Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Alexandria, Egypt | Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
Hepatitis Monthly Vol.8(2) 2008, pg. 101-109
Background and Aims: To exploring which camel milk proteins, have the ability to inhibit and/or blocking the hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry and replication inside the cells system.
Methods: Using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and hepG2 cells system, three experiments were setup: 1) cells treated with amylase or lactoferrin then infected with HCV; 2) HCV treated with amylase or lactoferrin then used to infect the cells; and 3) HCV infected cells were treated with amylase or lactoferrin. RNA was extracted, RT-PCR and nested PCR were run, in addition to immune-staining the cells to localize the viral molecule within the cells foci.
Results: Camel milk-amylase and lactoferrin were in vitro tested the ability to inhibit the HCV entry and replication inside the human peripheral blood and hepG2. Amylase could not able to inhibit nor blocking the viral replication. However, lactoferrin demonstrate a clear ability to inhibit the viral entry into both cells system when pre-interact with the virus, but fault to protect the cells before infection. The virus replication inside the cells was completely blocked only when the infected cells were treated with lactoferrin.
Conclusions: Camel lactoferrin was demonstrated a remarked in vitro ability to completely inhibit the HCV entry into PBMC, hepG2 and replication inside those cells system.
Camel Milk - New Observations
Central Veterinary Labs, Dubai, UAE
Proceedings of International Camel Conference, Feb. 16/17, 2007, pg 200 - 204
The camel is a multi-purpose animal with a huge productive potential. To western societies and even scientists it is unfortunately an alien animal. Only a few people have realized that the camel is the most suitable domestic animal for use in climatic extremes. In time of global warming, growing deserts and increasing scarcity of food and water, the camel can be part of a solution to these problems.
Small-scale enterprises have demonstrated that living conditions of the nomadic herdsman and his family can be improved by selling surplus camel milk. The Dubai example has also clearly proven that dromedaries can be milked in high-tech dairy farms. Some compositions of camel milk are different from cow milk and their values also differ values also differ from cow milk and also between different researchers. Insulin, vitamin C, niacin and some unsaturated fatty acids are higher in camel milk. The absence of β-lactoglobulin and the different compositions of proteins in camel milk may prevent allergic reactions. Therefore, camel milk could be an interesting alternative for infant milk products. Although the amount of lactose in camel milk is as high as in cow milk, lactose intolerance against camel milk does not exist. The reason is unknown. Raw camel milk is highly contaminated with bacteria when camels are milked under nomadic conditions lacking proper hygiene. However, there is no doubt that microbiological parameters of camel milk can meet international standards of cow milk when proper hygienic conditions are in place. No microbiological standards for camel milk exist. Camel milk must be heat-inactivated for human consumption. Our investigations showed that the shelf-life of pasteurized camel milk kept at 4°C is more than 10 days. Heat-inactivation of 72°C for 5 minutes on different camel milk parameters, including insulin and vitamin C reduces their amount by only 5% to 8%. Gammaglutamyl transferase (GGT) is a potential indicator for the question of whether camel milk has been properly pasteurized or not.
The effect of heat treatment, pasteurization and different storage temperatures on insulin concentrations in camel milk
U. Wernery, P. Nagy, I. Bhai, W.Schiele and B. Johnson
Central Veterinary Labs, Dubai, UAE | Dubai Hospital, Dubai, UAE
Milchwissenschaft 61 (1) 2006
The effect of heat treatment, pasteurization and different storage temperatures on the insulin concentration of 19 dromedary milk samples was tested. Insulin concentrations between the milk samples obtained from individual camels varied widely, and the overall mean insulin value of fresh camel milk taken 3 times within one month was 41.9 ± 7.38 µU/ml (mean ± SEM). There was a significant difference in insulin concentration between the 3 milk samples collected on days as well as freezing at -20°C resulted in a statistically significant reduction in insulin concentrations; however, this was minimal. Contrary to other researchers, our study demonstrated that the mean insulin concentration in camel milk does not significantly exceed the values found in bovine milk. However, the fact that camel milk, in comparison to bovine milk, does not coagulate in acid environment most probably is the main factor for its therapeutic effect on insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients.
Insulin Content in Raw Dromedary Milk and Serum Measured Over one Lactation Period
U. Wernery, B. Johnson and W. Tawfig Ishmail
Central Veterinary Labs, Dubai, UAE | Dubai Hospital, Dubai, UAE
Journal of Camel Practice and Research 13(2), p. 89-90, 2006
The insulin content was measured in raw milk and serum of individual dromedaries over a period of 310 days The mean milk insulin concentration was 40.5 ± 10.7 µU/ml and the mean serum insulin concentration was 12.77 ± 7.62 µU/ml.
Detection of antimicrobial residues in camel milk - suitability of various commercial microbial inhibitor tests as screening tests
A. Strasser, K.-J. Zaadhof, V. Eberlein, U. Wernery and E. Martlbauer
Institute for Hygiene & Technology of Food of Animal Origin, Germany | Central Veterinary Labs, Dubai, UAE
Milchwissenschaft 61 (1) 2006
The applicability of six commercially available inhibitor tests for camel milk was determined in a comparative study. 259 milk samples collected from untreated camels were tested using the Delvotest SP and various versions of the brilliant black reduction test (BR-Test 'AS Special', BR-Test 'AS Brilliant', BRT-Inhibitor Test, BRT=Inhibitor Test with prediffusion and BRT MRL-Screening Test). The occurrence of unspecific reactions (specificity) and the sensitivity against common antimicrobial compounds were assessed. According to German Offical Methods of Analysis L01.00-11 and L 01.00-51-EG the BRT-Inhibitor Test with prediffusion indicated negative results for all samples when the control milk turned yellow, the BR-Test 'AS Special' resulted in an earlier colour change. Four test systems (BR-Test 'AS Brilliant', BRT-Inhibitor Test, BRT MRL-Screening Test and Delvotest SP) indicated positive - unspecific - results when the tests were evaluated, at the same time the negative control sample showed a complete colour change. However, extension of the incubation period led to negative results for 100% (BRT-Inhibitor Test and Delvotest SP), 95% (BR-Test 'AS Brilliant') and 89% (BRT MRL-Screening Test) of the samples, respectively. The sensitivities against most the antimicrobials tested in camel milk did not significantly differ from those determined in cow milk.
Selected Vitamins and Fatty Acid Patterns in Dromedary Milk and Colostrum
T. Stahl, H.-P. Sallmann, R. Duehlmeier, U. Wernery
Inst. of Physiological Chem, Hannover, Germany | U of Vet Medicine, Hannover, Germany | CVRL, Dubai, UAE
Journal of Camel Practice and Research 13(1), p. 53-57, 2006
The aim of the present study was to determine concentrations of the viatmins A, E, B1, C and β-carotene as well as to evaluate the fatty acid paterns of dromedary milk (Camelus dromedarius). Therefore, camel milk from different herds in the United Arab Emirates was analysed by HPLC as well as gas chromatographic methods and compared with milk from Holstein Frisian cows of the same area. Besides fresh camel milk, pasteurized and lyophilised milk was also analysed to evaluated the influence of these preservation methods on the determined parameters. Colostrum was directly tested after birth and in 5 individuals also during the first week after parturition. Blood samples were tested from the same herds for their vitamin content in order to find an eventual relation between milk and blood levels. Vitamins A, E, B1 were higher than i mature camel milk, but vitamin C was lower in colostrum. Pasteurization and lyophilisation caused only small but significant losses. The total content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was similar in camel and cow milk. The differences in the fatty acid paterns were most obvious only in omega-6 and omega-7 fatty acids. In dromedary serum vitamins A, B1 and C were significantly higher than in cow serum; vitamin E was significantly higher in bovine serum. Regarding the vitamin content and the fatty acid composition, it was concluded that camel milk is a good alterntive to cow milk for human nutrition.
Etiology of autism and camel milk as therapy
Yosef Shabo, PhD, MD1 and Reuven Yagil, DVM2 1Departments of Family Medicine and Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences and 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheva, Israel
International Journal on Disability and Human Development 2005;4(2):67-70
The etiology of many autistic cases is based on a primary autoimmune disease, affecting an intestinal enzyme responsible for the formation of amino acids from the milk protein casein. Instead, the breakdown of the caseins, primarily beta-casein and beta-lactoglubulin, is to a powerful opioid, casomorphine. The opioid leads to typical cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Eventaully the casomorphin causes brain damage. Animal experimentation has shown that casomorphin causes autistic-like symptoms. It is therefore, advisable to restrict milk and milk products that can lead to the formation of casomorphin. As camel milk does not contain beta-casein and beta-lactoglobulin, camel milk does not lead to autism symptons. In addition, camel milk contains protective proteins, including the immuoglobulins necessary for maintaining the immune system and nutritional advantages for brain development. A few observations of the effect of drinking camel milk are presented and a discussion on the effect that camel milk had on verious age groups.
EFFECT OF RAW CAMEL MILK IN TYPE 1 DIABETIC PATIENTS: 1 YEAR RANDOMISED STUDY
R.P. Agrawal, R. Beniwal, S. Sharma, D.K. Kochar, F.C. Tuteja, S.K.Ghorui1 and M.S. Sahani2
Department of Medicine, S.P. Medical College, Bikaner-334003, INDIA
Journal of Camel Practice and Research 12(1), p. 27-35, 2005
The efficacy of camel milk consumption as an adjunct to routine diabetic management in maintaining long-term glycaemia control in type I diabetes was assessed during a 52 week randomised study. Throughout the duration of the study, 12 randomly assigned patients underwent routine diabetic management (diet, exercise and parental insulin supplementation) and 12 randomly assigned patients additionally undertook daily consumption of raw camel milk (500ml/day). In both groups, the dose of parenteral insulin administration was adjusted to maintain an euglycaemic state. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and body mass index (BMI) were measured at the initiation of the study and monitored at 3 monthly intervals. Additionally, plasma insulin, C-peptide and anti-insulin antibodies were measured at the beginning and end of the study. In the group receiving camel milk, there was a significant increase in MBI (17 ± 4.4 to 19.7 ± 2.97; p < 0.001) and a significant reduction in HbA1c (7.8 ± 1.38 to 6 ± 0.96; p < 0.001), mean blood glucose (119 ± 19 to 95.42 ± 15.70; p < 0.001) and necessary insulin dose (32 ± 12 to 17.88 ± 12.40; p < 0.005) compared to the values at the initiation of the study. There was no significant change in c-peptide (0.18 ± 0.04 to 0.24 ± 0.07) or antiinsulin antibodies (22.92 ± 5.45 to 21.84 ± 7.34).
We have demonstrated that the consumption of camel milk in type I diabetes results in a significant reduction in the dose of insulin required to maintain long-term glycaemic control. Based on our results, camel milk consumption, may therefore, be considered as a useful adjunct to parenteral insulin administration in the management of type 1 diabetes.
Camel Milk for Food Allergies in Children
Y. Shabo1, R. Barzel3, M. Margoulis1, R. Yagil2 1Faculty of Health Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel, 2Maccabi Health Services, Beer Sheva, Israel, 3Soroka University Hospital, Beer Sheva, Israel
IMAJ 2005: 7: December: 796-798
Background: Food allergies in children are often very serious and can lead to anaphylactic reactions. Observations that camel milk ameliorates allergic reactions were noted over the years. The effect of camel milk is probably related to its special composition. Objectives: To investigate the effect of camel milk in several children with severe food (mainly milk) allergies. Methods: We studied eight children with food allergies who did not benefit from conventional treatment. Their parents, or their physicians, decided to try camel milk as a last resort. The parents were advised by the authors - who have considerable experience with the use of camel milk - regarding how much and when the children should drink the milk. The parents reported daily on the progress of their children. Results: All eight children in this study reacted well to the milk and recovered fully from their allergies. Conclusions: These encouraging results should be validated by large-scale clinical trials.
The effect of short-term heat treatment on vitamin C concentrations in camel milk
U. Wernery, B. Johnson and A. Abrahm
Central Veterinary Labs, Dubai, UAE
Milchwissenschaft 60 (3) 2005
The effect of pasteurization on vitamin C concentrations in camel milk was investigated. Fifty milk samples were collected from 10 dromedaries over a period of 2 months and analyzed for vitamin C concentration by HPLC before and after pasteurization. The mean vitamin C concentration of the fifty paired fresh and pasteurized camel milk samples was 40.9 mg/dl and 38.4 mg/dl, respectively. Although pasteurization resulted in a statistically signification reduction in vitamin C concentration of camel milk, the magnitude of this reduction was minimal, equating to a 6.1% reduction. The fact that the reduction in vitamin C concentration following pasteurization was minimal can be considered as tremendously advantageous for the consumer in arid and semi-arid countries were vitamin sources are scarce.
The effect of heat treatment on some camel milk constituents. Preliminary report
U. Wernery, Brigette Hanke, F. Braun and Bobby Johnson
Central Veterinary Labs, Dubai, UAE | MUVA Kempten, Qualitats-und Laborzentrum, Germany
Milchwissenschaft 58 (5/6) 2003
We report here the effect of heat treatment on a variety of camel milk constituents. Six raw and 6 pasteurized camel milk samples were tested for 17 different milk constituents. The pasteurization was performed at 72°C for 5 min. The parameters tested were: fat, protein, ash, zinc, iron, calcium, copper, α-lactoglobulin, vitamins A, E, B1, B2, B6, D3, C and pyridoxal. β-lactoglobulin was only found in traces. This study demonstrates that the measured components of camel milk are more heat resistant than those in cow milk, a finding which is a tremendous advantage in relation to the commercial production of camel milk. Only 6 samples of camel milk were tested. In the future a greater number of samples should be tested following exposure to a variety of different temperatures.
Cross-reactivity between milk proteins from different animal species
P. Restani, A. Gaiaschi, A. Plebani*, B. Beretta, G. Cavagni^, A. Fiocchi**, C. PoiesiI, T. Velona, A.G. Ubazio* and C.L. Galli
Laboratory Toxicology, Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, *Department of Paediarics, University of Brescia, ^Dept. of Paediatrics, Sassuolog and **San Paolo Biomedial Institute of Milan
Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 1999, Volume 29, 997-1004
Cow's milk allergy is quite frequent in the first years of human life. When breast-feeding is not possible, a cow's milk substitute must be provided for allergic subjects. Different alternatives to cow's milk have been suggested as protein sources (soy, hydrolysed proteins, goat's milk, etc.), but all these dietetic solutions are not without risks for polyallergic or more sensitive subjects.
To obtain new information on the suitability of other mammalian milks for allergic children, we evaluated the cross-reactivity between milk proteins from different animal species.
Milk samples were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). To detect antibody–antigen complexes, immunoblotting was performed by using sera from children allergic to cow's and ewe's milk (RAST class ≥ 4) and monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) specific for bovine proteins (caseins and β-lactoglobulin).
IgEs from children allergic to cow's milk are capable of recognizing most part of milk proteins from mammals bred in European countries (ewe, goat, buffalo), while no serum used in this study contains IgEs reacting with camel's milk proteins. Camel's milk was also not recognized from circulating IgEs from a child specifically allergic to ewe's milk. Specific antibovine monoclonal antibodies cross-reacted with proteins from other mammalian species, apart from those of camel.
Homologies in amino acidic composition could justify the cross-reactivity observed between proteins from different animal species. On the other hand, the phylogenetic difference could be responsible for the failed recognition of camel's proteins by circulating IgEs and monoclonal antibodies.
INSULIN IN MILK – A COMPARATIVE STUDY
OLGA ZAGORSKI, ARIEL MAMAN, AVRHAM YAFEE, A. MEISLES, CLARA VAN CREVELD AND REUVEN YAGIL
Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O Box 653, BEERSHEVA 84105, Israel
International Journal of Animal Science 13, p. 241-244, 1998
As drinking camel milk for treatment of diabetes is common practice and as it was previously found that camel milk has large concentrations of insulin, a project was carried out to examine this phenomenon. Colostrum and milk of various mammals were examined for insulin and the effect of camel milk on blood sugar levels of laboratory rats was examined. It was found that colostrums contained much higher levels of insulin than milk. In all mammalian milk
examined there were relatively high concentrations of insulin. It was further found that in starved laboratory animals who were fasted and thirsted for 24hr, causing endogenous insulin to be low, camel milk cause a decline in blood
sugar. This decline was temporary as lactose was converted to glucose and the absorbed, pushing blood glucose up to normal. It is concluded that although all milks had insulin, the fact that only camel milk is unaffected by gastric acid
allows it to pass into the intestines where it is apparently absorbed.
Vitamin Content of Camel Milk
Z. FARAH1, R. RETTENMAIER2 and D. ATKINS3 1Lab of Dairy Science, Swiss Federal I of T, Zürich (Switz) 2R+D Dept of Vitamins & Fine Chemicals, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basle (Switz) 3 Ol Maisor Farm, P.O. Box 9, Rumurut (Kenya)
Internat. J. Vit. Nutr. Res. 62
The content of vitamin C, vitamin B2 and fat-soluble vitamins E and A in
camel milk was studied. The milk samples were collected from 20 individual camels
(Camelus dromedarius) in two different occasions. The study showed that camel milk
contains considerably less vitamin A and B2 than cow milk while the content of vitamin E was about the same level. The level of vitamin C was in average three times higher than that of cow milk.
Camels and Camel Milk
Dr. R. Yagil
FAO ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND HEALTH PAPER (ISBN: 9251011699)
Camel milk! What possible importance can camel milk have in the year 1981 in a world beset with a multitude of problems? The answer to this is clear when we consider that one of the biggest problems confronting mankind today is malnourishment. Camel milk can certainly play a far more important role in the prevention of malnutrition than it does today. Growing and raising foodstuffs for the rapidly increasing human population is especially precarious in the hot and arid zones of the world - the very areas where the camel is one of the few animals not only to survive, but also to benefit man. Before presenting data on milk production, both quantity and quality, one must consider in detail all the relevant information about the camel in order to ascertain the full value that this animal can play in human nutrition. Camels, or the family of camels, the Camelidae, are found throughout the world and all camels will be mentioned when possible; however, this report deals mainly with the one-humped dromedary, which is found in the desert and semi-desert areas. Milk is the main food obtained from a herd of camels. (Dahl, 1979). The one-humped camel was domesticated about 3000 B.C.E. in southern Arabia (Buillet, 1975), mainly for its meat and milk (Epstein, 1971). The camels were, and still are, valued as riding, baggade and work animals, as well as providers of hair and hides. In arid zones the camel is a better provider of food than the cow, which is severely affected by the heat, scarcity of water and feed (Sweet, 1965). Camels originated in North America when the land masses were still joined (Leuner, 1963). These animals were no larger than hares. Here they remained from the upper Eocene throughout the Tertiary period, into the Pleistocene epoch, a period of 40 million years. Continued evolution produced the very large American camels. Prom North America, meanwhile, the animals migrated to other parts of the world, finally disappearing from their original area. The various types and breeds in the camel family are probably a result of evolutionary adaptation to the various environments to which the animals were exposed. Some of the camels migrated to the deserts and semi-deserts of northern Africa and the Middle East. Remains of camels have been found in old Palestine, dating to 1800 B.C.E. Field (1979) considered that further migration of camels in Africa was prevented by their susceptibility to tsetseborne trypanosomiasis. However, the camel has been incriminated as the probable host which became infected with Trypanosoma brucei in the northern tsetse areas and spread the infection, which evolved to mechanically-transmitted T. evansi, throughout northern Africa into Asia. These camels have one-hump and long spindly legs. The two-humped camel, the Bactrian, was domesticated on the border of Iran and Turkmenistan and spread to an area bordered by the Crimea, southern Siberia, Mongolia and China. These animals are stockier than the dromedary and covered by a thicker wool. The now-world Camelidae are smaller versions of the camels and live in the heights of the mountains in South America.